The process of grafting is to remove the skin and phloem of the stem. The purpose of exfoliating the cortex of the plant stem is to stimulate root formation. Roots appear just above the incision on the stem. Roots result from cell division and differentiation of stem meristem tissue. Grafting is one of the artificial vegetative propagation of plants.
In the world of biology, grafting is a way of artificial vegetative propagation of plants. Artificial vegetative grafting is carried out by making circular incisions by removing the skin and cambium so that the photosynthetic food made by leaves that should be circulating stops at the site of the cut.
The presence of photosynthetic food that is not distributed because it stops at the periphery allows the meristem tissue composed of young cells to get enough food so that it is possible to divide and differentiate to form tissues (roots).
The differentiation that is formed will give rise to roots above the keratan because the differentiated meristem cells are in an environment that is saturated with food to form roots.
Grafting is an activity carried out to obtain plants that have the same characteristics as the parent, and the plants bear fruit faster than plants from seeds.
Plants that can be grafted include mangoes, oranges, rambutans, and many dicotyledonous plants and most importantly, branching woody plants.
Connect the grafting event with the functions of xylem, phloem and cambium are as follows:
1. Xylem is a tissue that transports water from the soil to the leaves. Xylem (wooden vessels) in the stem is located inside after the phloem. In dicot stems, xylem can form very broad and wide sections due to the activity of the cambium. In the grafting process, the xylem is left intact because it functions as a water carrier that will be used by the leaves as food formation material through the process of photosynthesis.
2. Phloem is a transport network in charge of circulating photosynthetic food to all plant organs. Phloem (sieve ducts) in the stem is located after the epidermis and cortex. At the time of grafting the phloem tissue must be removed so that the food substances produced by photosynthesis are stopped in the cutting area and stimulate root growth.
3. Cambium is an actively dividing tissue. The cambium can form xylem tissue inward and form phloem tissue outward. The location of the cambium on the stem is between the xylem and phloem.
At the time of grafting, the cambium on the branches or twigs must be removed so that the phloem tissue does not re-form. If the phloem tissue is formed again, then the roots cannot be formed. Conversely, if the cambium layer is not present, the results of photosynthesis will collect in the cleaned cambium and root growth can grow well.
The following are the correct grafting steps as follows:
1. Preparation of the Grafting Tool
First, of course, prepare the necessary tools which include a knife, fertile soil, ventilated plastic or you can also use coconut fiber, you can also use cloth, rope, and branches with a minimum length of 80 cm and more than four months old.
2. Peel the base of the tree branch
After the tools are prepared then peel the base of the branch to be grafted first. Peel the base approximately 25 cm long.
3. Clean the Cambium
After peeling the tree branches, then clean the cambium on the tree trunk which is still visible covering the inner trunk. Cleaning the cambium is attempted to be clean, so that the root growth process can grow optimally.
4. Dry the Stems
After cleaning the cambium of the tree trunk, wait a few minutes for the chipped trunk to dry.
5. Wrap the Stems with Soil
After the stems are dry enough, then wrap the branches with soil, simply smearing the stems with soil until the stems are all covered.
6. Wrapping with Plastic/Headband/Cloth
Wrapping the trunk can use plastic, coconut fiber, or cloth according to your taste. When wrapping it, try to use a ventilated plastic that doesn’t come off easily.
7. Watering Water
The grafted stem is doused with water, until the roots are visible. Usually about two months.
1. artificial vegetative reproduction: brainly.co.id/task/1075595
2. generative reproduction: brainly.co.id/task/18525081
3. Double fertilization: brainly.co.id/task/17934193
Chapter: The Development of Living Beings
Keywords: plant reproduction, generative, natural vegetative, artificial vegetative