Suara.com – President Jokowi was in the spotlight when he attended the annual session of the MPR-RI on August 16, 2021. Jokowi wore traditional Baduy clothes which were fairly simple, creating his own charm.
The Baduy tribe itself is a tribe that is very familiar and memorable for the people on the island of Java, especially for those who live in the Banten and DKI Jakarta areas. The reason is that until now the Baduy Tribe still maintains and preserves the values and traditions of their ancestors.
Citing the official website of the Ministry of Education and Culture (Kemendikbud), the Baduy tribe is found in Indonesia. Kanekes village, which is the traditional territory of the Baduy people.
Administratively, Kanekes Village is included in the Cisimeut Kemantren area, Leuwidamar District, Lebak Regency, Banten Province. Kanekes village is about 160 kilometers from the capital city of Jakarta, while from the administrative center of Banten Province in Serang city it is about 78 kilometers.
The distance from the Kanekes Village entrance to the Leuwidamar sub-district city center is 27 kilometers, and the distance to the Lebak sub-district city center in Rangkasbitung city is about 50 kilometers.
The location of Kanekes Village is in the Kendeng Mountains area whose physical condition is hilly. The area of the village based on the Lebak Regency Regional Regulation (Perda) level II Number 13 of 1990 is 5,101.85 hectares.
The Kanekes area includes huma (rice fields, gardens or agricultural land), settlements, and protected forests. The Baduy community is spread over around 59 villages.
The Origin and History of the Baduy
The official website for the learning culture map of the Ministry of Education and Culture reveals that ‘Baduy’ is the name given by outsiders to this community group.
Starting from the name of a Dutch researcher who seemed to equate them with the Badawi Arab group in the Middle East, which is a nomadic or nomadic society.
Another possibility, because of the Baduy River and Mount Baduy in the northern part of the region. They themselves prefer to call themselves as Kanekes or Kanekes people according to the name of the area, or a designation that refers to the name of the village such as urang Cibeo.
The Baduy community is divided into two groups, namely the Outer Baduy ethnic who still accept technology and the way of life of the modern society around them, and the Baduy tribe who still adheres to customs and traditions by rejecting technology and way of life.
According to local beliefs, the history of the Baduy tribe comes from Batara Cikal, who is one of the seven gods who were sent down to earth. The forerunner of Batara has a role to regulate the balance on earth.
This version is almost exactly the same as the story of the descent of the Prophet Adam AS, as the first creature and has the task of managing the earth. The Baduy also believe that they are descendants of the Prophet Adam.
Whereas in another version, historians have their own opinion about the history of the Baduy tribe. Their opinion is based on the findings of historical inscriptions, then also traced through the records of sailors from Portugal and China and connected with folklore about the Tatar Sunda.
Despite the fact that there are very few references to this story about Tatar Sunda. According to historians, the Baduy (Kanekes) are related to the Pajajaran kingdom (currently the Bogor area).
As is known, the Pajajaran kingdom existed around the 16th century. When the kingdom or sultanate of Banten had not yet been established, the area that later became the Sultanate of Banten was a very important area and had a significant role.
At that time Banten was still part of the Sunda Kingdom. Banten serves as a port that is famous for its prowess.
There is another third version, a public health researcher who visited the Baduy tribe in 1982, Doctor Van Tricht argues, that the Baduy people have existed for a long time and are the original people there.
According to Van Tricht, the Baduy people, especially the Baduy people, have a strong resistance and cannot adopt foreign cultures.
In addition, according to him, the Baduy Dalam community is very careful about their culture. It is evident that the Baduy tribe is still very strict in maintaining the culture of their ancestors.
Baduy people believe in the Sunda Wiwitan religion, which is a belief based on respect or worship of ancestral or ancestral spirits and belief in one power, namely Batara Tunggal.
The center of their worship is at the top of a mountain called Sasaka Domas or Sasaka Pusaka Buana.
The object of this worship is basically a remnant of a megalithic heritage complex in the form of a multi-storey or terraced building with a number of menhirs and statues on it. That is the gathering place for the ‘ancestor’ karuhun.
The descendants of karuhun who directly represent them in the world are puun, who are descendants of Batara Panjala. Apart from being the supreme leader, puun is also the ruler of the Sunda Wiwitan religion, as well as the most sacred leader who must obey all his orders and words.
Puun also leads various traditional ceremonies in Baduy, such as kawalu, ngalaksa, seba, muja, and reject reinforcements.
The livelihoods of the Baduy community can be divided into two, namely the main livelihood and additional or side livelihoods. The main livelihood of all Baduy residents is farming on dry land or called ngahuma.
Side jobs at Baduy Tangtu include tapping sap and making woven or knitted crafts. Additional work in Panamping Baduy is quite varied, including making palm sugar.
There is also a weaving activity of typical Baduy cloth; make woven or knitted crafts; sells food and soft drinks, yarn, and batik cloth with Baduy motifs purchased from Jakarta and Majalaya.
Baduy people are often found selling Baduy clothes, honey and handicrafts to other areas; even now some are pioneering to become tour guides for tourists visiting Baduy.
Baduy Tribe Tradition
There are several Baduy customs, such as the Kawalu Baduy Ceremony which is held as an expression of gratitude to Sang Hyang Karesa for the success of the Kanekes community’s huma rice harvest every year.
The Kawalu ceremony is one of the traditional traditions held before the Seba ceremony. The stages are the ngalanjakan ceremony, the Kawalu ceremony, the ngalaksa ceremony, and finally the Seba, as the culmination of the traditional ceremony performed by the Kanekes community.
As with other ceremonies that accompany Seba, the implementation of Kawalu cannot be separated from customary sanctions if in its implementation there are things that are outside the customs of the local community.
Kawalu comes from the word walu which means to return (go home). So, the meaning of the word Kawalu is to return. This ceremony is also commonly called ngukus Kawalu or burning incense to accompany worship offerings.
There is also the Seba Ceremony of the Baduy Tribe, which is a traditional ceremony held for the annual ritual activities of the Baduy residents which is intended as a form of gratitude to establish a relationship with the government of Lebak Regency and Banten Province, after the Baduy residents in South Banten harvest agricultural products.
When there is an event of death in the Baduy community, it is called a disability. Usually villagers and relatives come to show their deepest condolences to the bereaved family.
They come with rice, coconut, palm sugar or ready meals. They also unhesitatingly rolled up their clothes and reached out to help with anything related to funeral arrangements and funeral services.
In addition, they also work hand in hand to help the bereaved families for the purpose of celebrating the death. At the time of death, great-grandfather ‘taboo’ for the Baduy cry until he makes a loud sound.
Baduy tribal musical instrument art
If you visit Lebak Banten, then there is an art called Dogdog Lojor, which is an art that is often juxtaposed with a West Javanese musical instrument, namely the angklung. Dogdog lojor and angklung have some distinctive similarities.
Dogdog lojor, is one of the traditional arts that are still maintained by the Baduy community. Called dogdog lojor because it focuses on the three percussion instruments in the art.
While other art tools that are more numerous are angklung art tools. The three musical instruments by the Baduy community are not actually called dogdog lojor, but are called drums, talingtit, and ketug.
The naming of the dogdog is due to the sound produced by the dogdog’s voice. Lojor means long, because the size of traditional art tools that have a length of about 50 to 60 centimeters.
Named dogdog lojor by the general public because the art of angklung has spread throughout West Java. So the name dogdog lojor was chosen, as the name of the traditional art.
Later, to distinguish Baduy angklung art from other angklung arts, one more word was added behind the angklung name, namely buhun which means ancient or old. So. This art is called angklung buhun.
Baduy tribal government system
The life cycle of the Baduy community is governed by two different government systems, namely the formal government system and the informal government system. The formal government system refers to the Indonesian government system to govern all villages in the country. Formally, Kanekes village is led by a village head named Jaro Pamarentah.
Jaro pamarentah is assisted by a carik in carrying out his duties. Meanwhile, the informal government system refers to the local government system or customary government system.
This system of customary governance takes the form of the kapuunan institution, which requires them to comply with customary provisions which are implemented under the control of the highest customary leader, the puun.
In the kapuunan institution, the Baduy are led by the puun as the highest leader. In addition to puun, in the kapuunan institution there are a number of positions consisting of girang seurat, jaro, baresan, harvesten, pangasuh shaman, tangkesan, parawari, and kokolot. Each position in the Kapuunan institution has a unique authority.